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Category: Education

Organic Pest Control
Cultivator's Club, Education

Organic Cannabis Pest Control

How to Keep Bugs Off Your Nugs

Imagine this: You are stoked to finally, legally grow your own organic cannabis at home. You pridefully raise your babes from seed or clone, diligently tend to them for months – fawn over them even – only to find your nugs full of bugs at harvest time. Wah-wah-wah. Awful! The worst part is, that is how it usually goes down! Most often, you don’t even realize you have a pest problem until you are trimming, or pulling apart buds to enjoy them – when it’s already too damn late to implement a cannabis pest control program! Sure, sometimes there will be earlier or more obvious issues, visible pests, and foliar damage. Yet pests seem most drawn to the sweet, sticky cannabis flowers more so than the leaves. Just like we all are, am I right?

Let’s talk about some organic methods to keep pests off your precious cannabis. This includes preventative measures, by encouraging optimal plant health and resistance, using key soil amendments, and the role of beneficial insects. I will also share recipes and instructions for two organic homemade foliar sprays that we rely on. One is for the vegetative growth cycle, and one for flowering.

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Grow cannabis with clones

Seeds Or Clones: Which Is Better For Growing Cannabis?

When growing cannabis, you have two paths to choose from: seeds or clones. One one hand, seeds are reliable, easy, and accessible. Clones, on the other, are fast, efficient, and carry the exact traits of the mother plant. However, both methods have their downsides. Let's compare seeds and clones so you can decide how to proceed with your grow.


For those unfamiliar, clones are cuttings taken from vegetating mother plants. Once obtained, growers root the cutting before introducing it to soil or a hydroponic medium.

As the name suggests, a clone provides an exact genetic copy of the mother plant. This can either be a blessing or a curse, as you’ll see below. First, let’s discuss the advantages.


Because clones are exact copies, cuttings taken from a female mother plant will produce another female. This allows growers to sidestep the 50/50 chance that comes with growing from regular seeds. It also avoids the minor risk of feminized seeds throwing out a male.


With clones, you don’t need to wait for a seed to germinate and grow into a reasonably sized seedling. In fact, you completely skip that stage! Simply root your cutting, and you’ve got a plant that’s instantly ready to grow.



Clones deliver exactly what you liked about the mother plant. As exact genetic copies, they’ll carry over all of the mother’s traits, including size, taste, morphology, and productivity. Seeds will differ slightly from the plants they came from, though, due to genetic and environmental factors.

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A History of Cannabis

Once upon a time… in the Stone Age?

Chapter 2:

Professors Tengwen Long and Pavel Tarasov's theories aside (see Chapter 1), the earliest known use of cannabis for its medicinal properties can be traced back to ancient China some 5,000 years ago. However, it is not always easy to establish accurate dates for specific events as the Chinese did not excel exactly at writing them down. In some cases, we know the periods when some of these events happened only by references made to or by emperors...

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A History of Cannabis

Once upon a time… in the Stone Age?

Chapter 1:

It is generally believed that cannabis was first used, and possibly domesticated, somewhere in China or Central Asia about five millennia ago(1). Doctors Ethan Russo and Franjo Grotenhermen, for instance, say in their book Cannabis and Cannabinoids: Pharmacology, Toxicology and Therapeutic Potential that “Central Asia seems to be the origin of the hemp plant”.(2)

The main reason why biogeographers point at Central Asia when asked about the origins of cannabis use is the rise of transcontinental trade between Europe and the East—mostly based on wild plant distribution data—at the beginning of the Bronze Age.(3) Central Eurasia’s Yamnaya people are considered one of the main tribes that started European civilization. The Yamnaya migrated eastwards about 5,000 years ago, and are thought to have spread cannabis, and possibly its psychoactive use, throughout Eurasia, which comprises all of Europe and Asia.(4) The pollen, fruit and fibers of cannabis have been turning up in Eurasian archaeological digs for decades.(5)

However, cannabis use might have more complex and older origins. Professors Tengwen Long and Pavel Tarasov (Free University of Berlin, Germany) came up with an alternative to the Asian origins of cannabis theory in 2016. Their work suggests that cannabis entered the archaeological record of both Japan and Eastern Europe almost exactly the same time, between about 11,500 and 10,200 years ago, still in the Stone Age. According to Professor Long, “the cannabis plant seems to have been distributed widely from as early as 10,000 years ago, or even earlier.”(6) He goes on to suggest that a whole plethora of groups of people across Eurasia independently began using cannabis at this time for its psychoactive properties or as a source of food or medicine, or even for textile reasons. Therefore, it seems plausible to think that it was in western Eurasia that cannabis was first used regularly by humans around ten millennia ago. The fact that nomadic pastoralists on the Eurasian steppe had mastered horse riding by this time—which allowed them to cover long distances and start transcontinental trade networks—supports this hypothesis.(7)

It would not be until 5,000 years later then, when the melting and smelting of copper revolutionized history, that the use of cannabis in eastern Asia became commonplace. Ernest Small, research scientist and expert in medicinal plants, says that because people can use cannabis in so many ways, we can’t be sure that its Bronze Age spread was linked specifically to its psychoactive properties. However, Some researchers have suggested that burned cannabis seeds found at archaeological sites hint that the Yamnaya spread the habit of smoking cannabis with them across Eurasia. According to expert in the Yamnaya David Anthony (Hartwick College, Oneonta, New York), “The expansion of cannabis use as a drug does seem to be linked to movements out of the steppe. Cannabis might have been reserved for special feasts or rituals.”(8)

“[Cannabis use origins 10,000 years ago] is a hypothesis that requires more evidence to test,” concludes Long, but he points out that the high value of cannabis would have made it an ideal exchangeable good at the time—a “cash crop before cash”.(10)

  2. Cannabis and Cannabinoids: Pharmacology, Toxicology and Therapeutic Potential, The Haworth Press, Inc., 2002.
  4. See 1.
  5. See 4.
  6. See 1.
  7. See 1.
  8. See 1.
  9. See 1.


What's in a Pre-Roll?

More than pipes, bongs, edibles, oils, dab rigs, or any other means of consumption, the joint remains an icon. It may be the only method that, when pantomimed, says to the rest of the world "cannabis!"

A joint is cheap, discreet, disposable, and easily shared among friends. It requires neither the financial investment of a bong nor the time commitment of an edible. But unless you’ve got nimble fingers or hours to spend practicing, it can be tough to learn how to twist one up.

Enter the pre-roll.

Before legal, regulated markets, consumers themselves were the ones rolling joints. But as medical dispensaries and recreational shops emerged, demand grew for ready-made smokeables. By now, pre-rolls are almost everywhere, serving as go-to gifts and common suggestions to cannabis newcomers.

There’s just one thing: A lot of people think they’re junk.

"Out of maybe the 50 pre-rolls that I’ve got from dispensaries, two of them have been smokeable," laments one cannabis-focused YouTuber. "The rest have just been disgusting. They’ve gone in the trash, they’ve gotten broken up, they’ve just not been smoked. It’s pretty gross."

He’s not alone. Many in the cannabis community steer clear of pre-rolled joints because of the perception that they contain low-quality cannabis. But where did that reputation come from? Is it deserved? And does it really mean pre-rolls aren’t worth it? We spoke to budtenders, producers, dispensary owners, and cannabis enthusiasts to find out.

The biggest takeaway? When it comes to pre-rolls, it’s hard to generalize. But at least in some markets, they don’t always deserve the bad rap.

"The quality really varies a lot," said Lauren, who spent three years working in a Seattle medical dispensary and who requested anonymity in order to preserve her industry ties. While some producers use higher-quality flower, she said, others add what’s called trim — the leaves and stems that are cut away from the bud before curing.

"A lot of the pre-rolls that are out there are made with a combination of plant material, and sometimes that includes smaller stems," she said.

The biggest problem with a pre-roll is the paper, because it hides what’s inside. That makes it easier for producers to get away with using sub-par cannabis or trim. Even when a store includes high-quality cannabis, consumers still can’t judge what’s inside — so the store may see little advantage in stocking high-quality pre-rolls.

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Why You Should Ditch Smoking in Favor of a Handheld Vaporizer

Even as the hazards of smoking are repeatedly announced on various media, there are still many people who smoke. Even as the health benefits of vaporizing and aromatherapy are repeatedly trumpeted by medical experts and ordinary folk alike, there are still people who prefer smoking. Among the common reasons cited for this preference are the following:
  • Vaporizers are too expensive.
  • Smoking is preferable because it allows you to taste the herb.
  • The experience is just not the same.
The truth is that these "reasons" are nothing more than misconceptions arising from a lack of knowledge and understanding of the process of vaporization. Let us go through those reasons again to show why vaping, and not smoking, is actually the better option.
Misconception #1: Vaporizers are too Expensive
Vaporizers may indeed be more expensive than smoking pipes or cigarettes, and this is true whether you choose hand held vaporizers or tabletop models. When you talk of expense, however, you should look beyond a product’s price tag. Vaping technology has advanced so much in recent years that the devices currently being sold are durable enough to last for years, provided you use and care for them properly. Furthermore, vaporizers have been known to stimulate more of the active ingredients in herbs than smoking does, which means you need less of the herbs to get the same amount of benefit. Considering all these, vaporizing is therefore the more cost-effective solution. Besides, vaporizers now come with much lower price tags than they did before! And we won’t even talk about the healthcare costs commonly associated with smoking.
Misconception #2: You Miss out on Tasting the Herbs
Who says vaping doesn’t do the same? If you’ve never tried using a vaporizer, then it can indeed be easy to conclude that it only lets you smell the herbs. But once you give it a try, you’ll realize that the vapor carries with not only a pleasant aroma, but a rich, flavorful taste as well. In fact, most of those who have made the switch report that the smell and taste of the herb is a whole lot better when it is vaporized than when it is burned in a smoking pipe or as a joint. Let’s say your herb of choice is tobacco. When you smoke, you most probably taste burnt tobacco. When you vape, what you’ll taste is pure tobacco. Now, who wouldn’t want that?
Misconception #3: The Experience is just not the Same
Now, this is one reason we won’t argue with. The experience definitely is NOT the same. It is BETTER. Much better. Just ask anyone who has ever made the switch from smoking to vaping. After their first session, most people report that their lungs feel cleaner and their breathing easier when they vape as compared to when they smoke. And within a few months of making the switch, people have reported being more active and generally feeling healthier than they ever had before. So no, the experience isn’t the same. But would you rather have the same, less-than-pleasant experience or a better, healthier one? Now that you understand why vaping is a better option than smoking, it is time for another important piece of information: Vaping isn’t just for those who enjoy consuming tobacco or need to use marijuana for medical purposes. It can also be used for aromatherapy. There are many herbs that promote general health and well-being and you can use these herbs in your vaping sessions. People have, in fact, made use of the healing properties of these herbs for thousands of years, albeit with different delivery methods. Some are consumed as tea and others used in an aromatic bath. Now you can also vaporize them. Other than cannabis and tobacco, vaporizers may also be used for aromatherapy herbs. When you choose to ditch smoking and start vaporizing, one of the major decisions you’ll have to make involves choosing a specific vaporizer. The range of available options is so wide that the task may indeed be overwhelming. For someone leading an active lifestyle, however, the best option is perhaps to get a handheld vaporizer. The portable vaping technology has indeed taken the industry by storm, and understandably so. Many people may have realized that vaporizing is a much healthier alternative to smoking and these people may have embraced vaping, but most of them don’t really want to deal with bulky and complicated equipment. In fact, this is part of the reason why there are still those who haven’t made the switch; the original vaporizer models were just too big and too complicated to operate. The good news is that advances in technology have led to the creation of vaporizers you can easily carry around in your pocket. These pocket vaporizers are great for travel, as you can readily use them wherever and whenever you want. If you’re going on an outdoor adventure where you don’t have access to electricity, then you can bring a butane-powered device. If you just want something you can bring to work without having to bring a lighter or a can of butane, then you may choose a rechargeable model. These portable devices are truly versatile, as they even come with chargers designed for use in your car, so you can vape even when you’re on a road trip. It is said that tabletop versions hold the advantage of providing you with vapor of better quality. For this reason, there are people who buy these devices for home use and also keep a portable model in their bag for on-the-go use. You, too, can do the same if you want to enjoy the different kinds of experience offered by these two types of vaporizer. But, what if you can’t afford to buy more than one vaporizer? Is there a way for you to enjoy portability and high-quality vapor at the same time? Good news! There are handheld models like the Ascent by DaVinci that provides you with vapor to rival that of tabletop versions. And the technology continues to evolve such that it won’t be long until we finally see a handheld vape that tops the vapor quality of tabletop models. There really is no reason to wait. Portable vaping has arrived and it is here to stay. Shop Online for Cannabis-Infused Beverages
Marijuana Infused Beverages


Drink Your Weed: How Cannabis Beverages Finally Took Off

Drinkables could offer a whole new kind of high

About a year ago, when Lyden Henderson took a sip of a nonalcoholic, cannabis-infused beer, he discovered something was amiss: The beverage was chunky — bits of cannabis floated throughout the beer, creating an unpleasant consistency. “It tasted kind of like I was drinking milk that had been sitting in the refrigerator for two or three months,” Henderson says. “It had the worst texture. It was one of the grossest things I had ever tried in my life.”

Just call that negative experience research. Henderson and his colleagues at Outbound Brewing, the nonalcoholic THC- and CBD-infused-beer company he co-founded in 2018, spent more than a year and a half making sure their nonalcoholic cannabis beer wasn’t chunky or lumpy. When the beverage line launched earlier this year, Henderson was sure each 12-ounce bottle maintained a smooth drink infused with 10 mg of THC or 20 mg of CBD. It felt like they’d cracked a code.

Cannabis is notoriously difficult to effectively infuse into beverages. Cannabinoids, the compounds in the cannabis plant, such as tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD), are fat-soluble and not easily mixed with water. (Another liquid product, tinctures, use alcohol as a base in which to mix cannabinoids, though the consumption experience of placing an eyedropper under your tongue to dispense the solution is a far cry from sipping a drink.) For oral-ingestion purposes, edibles and baked goods have long been the standard, since cannabinoids are easily mixed with fatty butters and oils. While THC is soluble in alcohol, it is illegal to combine alcohol and cannabis in the United States — so water-based drinks prevail.

Until recently, for many cannabis-beverage manufacturers, the tricky science of getting opposites to attract resulted in imperfect drinks. Cannabis oil and water would separate, creating a wholly inconsistent product, with each sip containing a different dose of cannabis, and the taste was less than desirable. (Not to mention how just one serving would contain high amounts of THC.)

Now, novel technology has allowed beverage startups to create better-tasting weed tonics, beers, teas, and aperitifs, reaching casual consumers looking for an alternative to alcohol.

Compared with flower or vapes, the cannabis-beverage market is small — but it’s growing. According to cannabis-industry analytics firm Headset’s 2019 cannabis-beverage market report, the canna-drink market doubled over the past two years, currently worth $3 million, only about 1.4 percent of overall cannabis sales. When it comes to oral consumption, edibles still prevail as the method of choice, with 12 percent of overall cannabis sales, according to the report.

But as the legal-cannabis market matures in states like California and Colorado, consumers are looking for alternatives to smoking, vaping, and edibles, the latter of which has a delayed onset of 30 to 60 minutes and whose effects can last for more than six hours. Since there’s very little competition within the canna-drink space, companies are looking for a way in, says Cy Scott, CEO of Headset. (In Canada, where cannabis was legalized in 2018, major beverage manufacturers are looking to get skin in the game, with brewing companies Molson Coors, Anheuser-Busch InBev, and Constellation Brands investing millions of dollars in Canadian cannabis producers.)

And because beverages are seen as a functional product — one that promises to quench thirst, energize, calm, or act as a social salve — drinks are a familiar consumption method with an added bonus, says Jessica Lukas, senior vice president of commercial development at BDS Analytics, a cannabis-market insights firm. “There’s something about unwinding and relaxing with tea at the end of the night, and now my tea can be more functional because it does have CBD and THC in it as well.”

Within the past few years, technological breakthroughs afforded beverage manufacturers the means to create more-palatable drinks to appeal to a growing market. Through a process called nano-emulsification, cannabis oil is broken down into microscopic particles and then mixed with an emulsifier, a substance that helps oil dissolve in water. “In terms of the emulsifying agent, it has a part that likes oil and a part that likes water,” says Jake Bullock, co-founder of Cann, a THC- and CBD-infused sparkling water. “So it takes that cannabis oil on one end and takes the other end that likes water and suspends it in the liquid in a way that’s water-soluble. That allows the product to be really consistent.”

Each 8-fluid-ounce Cann contains 2 mg of THC and 4 mg of CBD, in flavors like lemon lavender, blood-orange cardamom, and grapefruit rosemary — beverages that taste and feel more like seltzer than a weed drink. Cann, which is headquartered in Los Angeles, worked with the Seattle-based lab SōRSE Technology on the emulsification process. First, Bullock and his Cann co-founder, Luke Anderson, developed the formula for the drink itself out of Bullock’s garage. Then they teamed up with SōRSE to tinker with the emulsification process for about six months, homing in on an ideal dose and infusion that wouldn’t impact taste but would allow the cannabis to effectively solubilize in the drink. The duo hit some speed bumps before their 2019 launch — like trying the drink and not being able to find the weed. “Imagine [us] a year ago, and testing our product and seeing all the cannabis had disappeared,” Bullock says. “Where has it gone? We found it, and it was stuck to the liner of the can.” Eventually, Cann narrowed in on a product that doesn’t taste like weed, has the consistency of seltzer, and has a standard amount of cannabis throughout each can.

Since beverage-company founders tend to have less insight into the science of emulsification, many rely on outside labs to infuse their drinks. Henderson’s Outbound Brewing, the nonalcoholic cannabis-beer company, brought in an outside chemist with experience in the cannabis-beverage industry. After a monthlong brewing process involving the removal of alcohol from the beer, the chemist created the nano-emulsion and infused the beer while also introducing cannabis terpenes, which impacted flavor. “We want to work with terpenes to enhance the flavor of the beer,” Henderson says. “Because [in] a nonalcoholic beer, when you remove the alcohol you do lose some of the body. Reintroducing that using cannabis terpenes not only helped bolster the flavor of our product, but also helped guide the cannabis.”

Oakland-based lab Vertosa is the infusion partner of choice for cannabis cold-brew brand Somatik, cannabis aperitif Artet, and nonalcoholic cannabis wine House of Saka. Since launching in 2018, Vertosa has worked with countless beverage companies to create unique nano-emulsions for each drink, since, for example, the chemical makeup of wine vastly differs from the chemical makeup of coffee. Usually, a beverage manufacturer will refine the drink’s formula before outsourcing the nano-emulsification process to Vertosa, CEO Ben Larson says. Within four to six weeks, Vertosa develops an emulsion that doesn’t impact flavor or color of the beverage. “We provide the active ingredient,” Larson says. “Think of us as sugar.”

One of the biggest hurdles when developing an orally ingested cannabis product is “onset time,” the length of time for a consumer to feel a drug’s effects. When cannabis is eaten, cannabinoids are absorbed in the stomach and the liver, slowing down effects. However, through nano-emulsification, cannabis is broken down into extremely small molecules, which allows for faster absorption. “Instead of being absorbed through your liver, it’s absorbed through your stomach lining,” says Tracey Mason, who, in 2018, co-founded House of Saka, the THC- and CBD-infused pink and sparkling-pink nonalcoholic wine made from Napa Valley grapes. House of Saka claims drinkers will feel effects within five to 15 minutes of consuming a 5-ounce pour, which contains 5 mg of THC and 1 mg of CBD. “You feel it right away, so you can understand what 5 mg of THC feels like,” Mason says. “And then it starts to dissipate, and then you can have another. It becomes more sessionable.”

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Marijuana Edibles

Cannabis edibles

Many patients have asked our budtenders about medibles. What exactly are they? A medical cannabis edible, also called a “medible,” is a medical alternative to smoking, vaping and medicating with marijuana. Medibles deliver a high dose of THC and CBD for a fair price. They are more inconspicuous than smoking as there is no obvious smell being emitted.

Dosing with Care

You have to be careful when using medibles though, as people tend to have different reactions to them. It is especially important for new users without a tolerance to always be cautious about the dosage you are taking. Check to see what the package recommends as one serving and wait a minimum of 30 minutes to see what you feel like before increasing the recommended dosage. On average, it can take up to 30-60 minutes to feel desired effects and will last between 4-6 hours. This level of caution is necessary primarily because medical marijuana markets have gone largely unregulated in many parts of the country, and there is no standard for how much THC is actually present in many marijuana-infused products. When it comes to marijuana edibles, users are often taking a leap of faith in terms of how big of a dose they will be getting. Remember, you can always take more, but you can never take less.

If you want to medicate discretely while you are at home or on the go, then medibles are the recommended alternative choice.

Stone Age Farmacy always stocks a huge variety of edibles, and our budtenders are available to answer any questions you might have.

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Growing Cannabis with Marijuana Clones

Growing cannabis with marijuana clones is a way of propagating plants through asexual reproduction by cutting and rooting a healthy shoot. This process is also known as ‘taking a cutting’. All of our clones can be ordered online for in-store pickup.

Cultivation Questions?   Grower's Guide

Over many thousands of years, humans have exploited this ability to select plants that have particular desirable properties like high yields or pleasant flavors. Marijuana farmers are no different. The donor plant is often referred to as a ‘mother plant’. Growing cannabis with marijuana clones generally involves taking this 'donation' from a mother plant while in its vegetative stage.

Stone Age Farmacy offers a variety of quality medical marijuana clones and post-sale cultivation guidance. Below is a brief guide to growing cannabis with marijuana clones:

New Growers

Indoor growing requires a high pressure sodium light, hood, and ballast which can cost between $100-200. Growing outdoor would be the most cost efficient as electricity and hardware are the biggest cost. For the vegetative light cycle, you could leave your plant outside during the day and bring it inside at night, putting a simple fluorescent light over it for the remainder of the light hours.

Medical Marijuana Clones

Once it's ready to be switched to the flowering cycle, you could leave it outside day and night depending on the time of year. However, since complete darkness is important, if there are any street lights around, you should probably bring it inside at night to be placed in a dark place. This is key so that your plant does not get confused and switch back to vegetative growth. Also, plants don’t do well under 55°F, so if it is getting cold at night, you should bring it inside. For these reasons, it’s best to put it in a pot so it can remain mobile.

Why Grow with Clones?

There are a number of benefits to growing from medical marijuana clones that are healthy and free of insects. These include:

  • Known sex (female) – this will make buds with lots of resin, not pollen. It also means less potential for accidental seeding in your garden.
  • They are often available after harvest if you want to start another crop; no need to keep separate growing areas as a nursery for producing transplants.
  • When buying medical marijuana clones from Stone Age, you have a partner with you in the garden. Our cultivation experts will be able to provide you with valuable growing information and support as you get started.
  • Growth habits and finishing times will be even for each plant from the same clone – this allows for a uniform grow cycle throughout your garden.

Vegetative Stage

*18-24 hrs of light

The 24hr light cycle will allow your new clone to grow through vegetative means (it will not flower). It's important to assess how much space you have to grow because once you switch to the flowering light cycle, your plant will be about three times its vegetative size.

Flower Light Cycle

*12 hrs light/ 12 hrs dark (complete darkness is important)

Once you switch to this light cycle, the 12 hrs darkness will allow your plant to build up an internal chemical which tells it to begin flowering. The flowering cycle is roughly 8 to 10 weeks.

Ideal Temperature

The ideal temperature for your growing environment is between 75-78°F.

Ideal Humidity

For the best flowering results, the humidity of your greenhouse or other growing area should stay around 50%.

Growing Mediums

Easiest in soil. Fox Farm, ocean forest soil is recommended in a 3 gallon pot. Veg plant until it is about 18" high which will finish at 3’ tall (this is a rough estimate and will vary depending on strain type).


Purified water is best. There are many minerals in tap water that your plant doesn’t want.

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Further Reading

These are just the basics of growing. For further information and questions, our indoor growing experts are available to answer your questions via email.